1. Ewing R, Cervero R. Travel and the built environment: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association. 2010; 76:3(2010):265-294.
Household Transportation Costs
The HCI Household transportation Costs indicator measures the average percent of income a household spends on transportation. Household transportation costs have a direct impact on individual health and are linked to numerous elements of community health. Households that spend more money on transportation often face greater economic stresses and are often located in areas with few alternatives to driving. Low income families often pay high transportation costs which leaves little for food, health care and other necessities. High transportation costs generally equate to higher rates of car ownership which adds to pollution, and negative impacts on air quality. Although found in the Transportation Services domain, household transportation costs are linked to neighborhood characteristics, education, employment, environmental hazards, and housing. Modeled data on household transportation costs is downloadable from the Location Affordability Index (LAI) on HUD’s Location Affordability Portal.
|Lower South Providence||17.2%||9|
|Upper South Providence||17.0%||7|