1. An, Jane, et al. “Issue Brief #9 Exploring the Social Determinants of Health; Work, Workplaces and Health” (2011). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
2. McKee-Ryan, Frances, et al. “Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment (2005). Journal of Applied Psychology.
3. Morris, J.K., et al. “Loss of employment and mortality” (1994). British Medical Journal.
4. Paul, Karsten I. and Klaus Moser. “Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses” (2009). Journal of Vocational Behavior.
5. Virtanen, Marianna, et al. “Temporary employment and health: a review” (2005). International Journal of Epidemiology.
The HCI Employment Rate indicator measures the proportion of working age population (i.e., residents aged 16 through 64) currently employed. Research demonstrates a strong connection between employment status and health. Compared to the unemployed, employed people are more likely to have better physical well-being and self-esteem, and a lower likelihood of mortality and psychological problems, such as distress, depression, and anxiety. Re-employment after a long period of unemployment is also associated with improved mental health. Although found in the Employment Opportunities domain, employment rate also influences, or is influenced by, housing, economic health and educational opportunities. Employment rate data is available from the U.S. Census.
|Lower South Providence||48.3%||22|
|Upper South Providence||46.6%||23|