1. Auchincloss, A.H., et al. “Neighborhood resources for physical activity and healthy foods and incidence of type 2 diabetes (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)” (2009). Archives of Internal Medicine.
2. Cohen, D.A.et al. “Public Parks and Physical Activity Among Adolescent Girls” (2006). Pediatrics.
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6. Voicu, Joan and Vicki Been. “The Effect of Community Gardens on Neighboring Property Values” (2008). Real Estate Economics.
Park Quality is measured using “Parkscore®,” a comprehensive rating system developed by the Trust for Public Land that evaluates how cities are meeting the need for parks based on acreage; service and investment; and access. Positive health outcomes are associated with proximity to well-maintained and accessible parks and open spaces. The number of parks near a household and the types of amenities available are associated with increased physical activity. Conversely, lack of physical activity is a central risk factor for many diseases. Individuals with access to opportunities for physical activity and healthy foods have lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, higher physical activity levels, and lower body mass index. Low-income communities are most likely to lack parks or other recreational spaces, or have well-designed and maintained equipment. Parkscore® is available from the Trust for Public Land for the 75 largest U.S. cities.